This is the official designation used for Declarative-Interrogative, otherwise known as simply D.I. It refers to a 4 No Trump bid employed in specified bidding sequences as a general slam attempt. The originator(s) of this conventional method is unknown. This method was reportedly established as part of the Neapolitan system.

Background Information

Note: The Blue Team Club was based upon a bidding system called Neapolitan, which was originated principally by Mr. Eugenio Chiaradia of Naples (Napule), Italy, and which was played successfully by many bridge players in Italy such as Mr. Pietro Forquet, Mr. Guglielmo Siniscalco, Mr. Massimo D'Alelio, and Mr. Benito Garozzo. However, since 1965, Mr. Benito Garozzo has gradually revised the Neapolitan and renamed it the Blue Team Club system.

Note: The date of the photograph of Mr. Eugenio Chiaradia below is unknown. Any additional photographs contributed by readers would be greatly appreciated and recognized.

The bid of 4 No Trump is Blackwood if it is a jump bid or bid at the very first opportunity after a sudden jump to game by either partner. Otherwise the bid of 4 No Trump promises 2 Aces if bid by an unlimited hand by either partner, or 1 Ace if bid by any partner, who has limited his holding, and this action constitutes the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump method.

     

As a response to the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid the responder may rebid by jumping to the six level of the agreed trump suit, which denies any interest in a grand slam, or the responder may rebid 5 No Trump to communicate maximum values and interest in a grand slam. After any normal five-level response to a 4 No Trump asking bid, the bid of 5 No Trump asks for additional information, presses the partnership toward the grand slam, and promises one more Ace than originally guaranteed.

The Declarative-Interrogative 4 No Trump bid, in other bidding systems such as Blue Team Club and Kaplan-Sheinwold, requests additional information about held features rather than the responses promising a specific number of Aces or Key Cards. In the Blue Team Club bidding system, whenever the Declarative-Interrogative 4 No Trump bid is made after a series of cuebids, then it becomes a slam try with the promise that all suits are covered and/or contain a first-round control card unless the player, who bids 4 No Trump, bypasses a suit in which a control has not been shown.

Note: It must also be mentioned that certain partnership agreements have the understanding that after a Blackwood 4 No Trump and the Ace-showing response, any 5 No Trump rebid is always, without exception, declarative-interogative, asking for features rather than normally for the number of held Kings.

The partnership must also be aware of the parameters, in which the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump method may be triggered, and in which bidding sequences the conventional method may not be applied, such as in the following parameters, whereby the bid of 4 No Trump does not trigger the method:

1. A jump to 4 No Trump.
2. A bid of 4 No Trump over 3 No Trump.
3. A bid of 4 No Trump at the first or second turn to bid.

Examples

Following are two examples of such bidding sequences, whereby the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid do not apply:

South   North   Meaning
4   4 NT   This bid of 4 NT by the responder does not fall within the parameters of a Declarative Interrogative 4 No Trump bid. The bid of 4 No Trump is Blackwood.
         
South   North   Meaning
1   3    
4 NT       This bid of 4 NT by the responder does not fall within the parameters of a Declarative Interrogative 4 No Trump bid. The bid of 4 No Trump is Blackwood.

Requirements

Whichever player of the partnership bids 4 No Trump as a Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid promises a minimum of 2 Aces if the holding is still unlimited in values. However, if the holding has been limited in values, then the 4 No Trump bidder needs only 1 Ace as a minimum. The 4 No Trump bidder must also, in addition to the required number of held Aces, promise at least a second-round control of his suits and any unbid suits.

Opener   Responder   Meaning
spades AK
hearts AQ874
diamonds 1094
clubw AQ7
 
spades Q5
hearts K1063
diamonds AK87
clubw 854
   
1 hearts   3 hearts   The responder limits his holding by a double raise.
4 clubw       The opener bids a first-round control in Clubs.
    4 diamonds   The responder, who has limited his holding, bids first-round control in Diamonds
4 NT       The opener, who holding has not been limited in the bidding sequence, promises at least 2 Aces when initiating the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid. In addition, the opener promises at least a Kx in Clubs and Spades. As a logical conclusion the responder must assume weakness in Diamonds.

Responses to a Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump Bid

1. Negative Response
  Following the triggering of the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid by partner the responder can decline the a slam attempt by bidding the agreed trump suit.
   
2. Encouraging Response
  A response to the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid by partner below the agreed trump suit shows slam interest, but does not show additional values since the responder has already limited his holding. Per agreement this bid, however, does show working values in the suit bid.
   
3. Positive Response
  Any suit bid by the responder above the agreed trump suit is positive and considered slam forcing, perhaps owing to distributional shape and/or shortage in a suit. The following responses serve as guidelines for all positive responses:
  5 NT: This is the strongest positive response partner can make. It shows 2 Aces and maximum values for the limit raise.
  6 (trump): By responding 6 of the agreed trump suit, then the responder is showing weakness. In addition, the responder is denying any interest in a grand slam.
  (5 spades) or 6 (non-trump): All other responses to the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid by partner promises not only maximum values, but also possible ruffing power owing to suit shortage. These responses also encourage the partner to explore for a possible grand slam contract.

Example

Opener   Responder   Meaning
spades AK865
hearts KQ109
diamonds K9
clubw 65
 
spades Q109
hearts A93
diamonds AQ7
clubw A1072
   
1 spades   3 clubw   The responder shows game values. The response is game forcing.
2 hearts       The opener describes his holding as 5-4-x-x; the rebid is unlimited.
    3 spades   The responder supports partner's first bid suit. Opener now knows that responder only holds 3 Spades. The trump suit is established.
4 spades       The opener bids game.
    4 NT   The responder continues with the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump bid. The responder is within the required parameters, which state that the D.I. bidder must hold at least two Aces.
6 diamonds       The opener accepts the slam invitation when holding additional values. Since the opener does not hold two Aces, he is unable to bid 5 No Trump. Therefore, the only bid open to the opener is 6 Diamonds, showing a Diamond control. All continuances are then left to the responder.
    6 spades   The responder, as captain, signs off in a small slam.

Note: The Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump, as originally conceived, with its strict guidelines and narrow parameters is seldom employed. A less stricter version is used and is employed generally as a general slam attempt following a round of first round control cuebidding. Once the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump has been initiated, then this bid requests that the partner communicate additional information about the holding.

Note: The Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump, the original version or altered versions, are generally employed by players using a Precision bidding system as a general slam try. But, for all intents and purposes, the most important feature of this conventional method is to distinguish whether the 4 No Trump bid in a particular bidding sequence is Blackwood, any version, or the Declarative Interrogative Four No Trump with predefined parameters.

 

 

If you wish to include this feature, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.

 


     
Email Conventions Bridge Sites
     
Home Page I Glossary Home Page II
     
   
  Slam Bidding