In the game of bridge each player has the desire to compete since the game itself is a game of chance and change. It is from this perspective that the following list is presented for those players wishing to compete according to established and conceived guidelines. These are defense methods against No Trump opening bids by the opponents.

The 1 No Trump bidder has described and semi-limited the holding, and every player at the table knows his length and strength, because the range should be announced according to the regulations of the sponsoring organizations. If the partner of the No Trump bidder has fewer than 6 or 7 high card points, there is generally no reason for the partner to bid. Therefore, the partner of the No Trump bidder passes unless the responder has the opportunity to make a transfer bid to a 5-6 card suit. However, by a pass the opponents see in this action weakness, and therefore desire to enter the auction, either in the direct seat or in the pass-out / balancing position.

Before continuing, it must be noted that by adopting some of these conventions, treatments or methods, the partnership will have sometimes decided to surrender the use of the double to signify a penalty double, which is sometimes a feature of various partnership agreements. This is known as a conversion double. This decision must be made known to the opponents through means of the Convention Card. In some conventional defense methods the double is designed as a penalty double.

The opponents realize that the No Trump bidder and partner could have the majority of the high card points, and this fact casts a little shadow of doubt on the situation. As a general rule, if there is an instinctive doubt, it is usually better to pass. It is most unlikely that the opponents will have game, although this is hypothetically possible. The foundation of practically all defense methods is normally based on the power of shape and distribution and evaluated many times according to the Losing Trick Count method and especially the location of working values. Other valuation features may play a part in competing.

Bridge players, since the introduction of the game of especially duplicate bridge, have been devising ways and means of defending / competing against No Trump openings with at least some kind of educated guess, calculated risk, number of Losing Tricks and strength through distribution. Following are some of these conventions, treatments and methods. They have proven to be quite successful when used properly and in partnership agreement. It is incumbent upon the bridge player to acquaint himself with these methods since they will be employed by opposing players.

Note: Many concepts have been pioneered as defense methods against an opening No Trump bid by the opponents. This has increased the level of competition in many auctions and has enhanced the game of bridge. As with all defense methods against an opening by an opponent there have been variations of the original concept developed based sometimes on the strength of the No Trump range, based on the individual partnership agreement, based on the vulnerability, based on the number of Losing Tricks, a combination thereof, and other factors, and therefore become modifications, variations, revised versions.

Note: Some of these variations carry a distinct designation and other variations are generally not known by a definite or definitive term. Even the variations have variations and modifications. The attempt has been made to include these variations as they become known or are contributed by our visitors.

Important Note: Listed are also defense methods against such defense methods by the opposing players, meaning that response methods have been developed and devised also for the responder of the No Trump bidder in order to compete.

Acol Two No Trump
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. This defense method held a certain popularity in the early stages of the evolution of the game in the United Kingdom, and it is only presumed that this defense method was devised in the bridge club in London on Acol Road, for which the bidding system was named, to show a two-suited holding of game forcing strength.

Anti Against No Trump Openings
The origin of this concept or conventional defense method is unknown. This is a designation for a defense method against a No Trump opening by an opponent. The bids are designed to show either a one-suited holding or a two-suited holding by the intervenor. The advancer is the partner of the intervenor.

A:son 74 Defense Method - ASON 74
This conventional method was developed by Mr. Mats Nilsland and Mr. Rolf-Eric Andersson in the year 1974. The basic concept is two-fold in that an opening bid in a Major suit shows exactly 4 cards and attempts to conceal a balanced to semi-balanced holding from the opponents. The concept for the former purpose of showing distribution became abandoned and emphasis was placed on the method as a defense method against the opening of No Trump by an opponent. The basic concept or structure of A:son 74, an abbreviation for Andersson, one of the developers and the last two digits of the year, was developed for interference following a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent. In essence the defense method employs a similar structure to the responses of Stayman, Transfer Bids, and also Minor Suit Stayman.

Aspro Convention
Mr. John Terence Reese devised this defense method and based it on the Astro Convention. Mr. John Terence Reese also provided a specific designation to the intervening Aspro player, which is astronaut. For whatever reasons behind the choice for the designation, it seems that Mr. John Terence Reese decided to name the conventional concept after a popular British brand of aspirin.

Asptro Convention
A method of defending against a 1 No Trump opening showing one of the Major suits and an unspecified second suit. The designation is also a combination of two similar defense methods: Asptro-Astro. This conventional method is a defense method employed after an opponent opens the auction with No Trump.

Middlesex Asptro Defense Method
The origin of this defense method is unknown. The particular variation of the original Asptro convention is generally limited to a weak No Trump opening bid by the opposition.

Astro Defense Method - Astro Convention
This conventional defense method uses the bid of a Minor suit overcall after a strong No Trump opening or a weak No Trump opening to show a particular distributional holding and can be employed either in the immediate seat or in the balancing seat. The terminology comes from the names of the bridge players, who devised the convention: Mr. Paul Allinger - Mr. Roger STern - Mr. Larry ROssler.

Astro Roth-Stone
This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. Alvin Roth and Mr. Tobias Stone, two successful bridge personalities, partners, and authors. This version of the Astro defense method, employed after a No Trump opening by the opponents, shows a two-suited holding of two known suits.

Half Astro Defense Method
This is a variation on the concept of the Astro conventional method devised by Mr. David Collier of Manchester, United Kingdom. Source is his online BlogSpot. The significance of the designation is unknown.

Grano-Astro Defense Method
This variation of the Astro conventional defense method following a 1 No Trump opening bid by the opposing side is credited to Mr. Matthew Granovetter. This variation expands also upon the original version not only with the employment of the double but also with the expansion of the number of possible overcalls.

Modified Astro Defense Method
This variation, or modification, of the Astro conventional defense method is used to expedite the description of a Major suit two-suiter after a strong 1 No Trump opening to show a two-suited hand. The range of the No Trump bid is limited by the range of 15-18 high card points.

Pinpoint Astro Defense Method
Using these modifications or variants of the original Astro conventional defense method, the overcall may have a better possibility of conveying a more accurate description of any two-suited holding to partner.

Becker Defense Method
This method has been attributed to Mr. R. Jay Becker. The concept is a conventional defense method employed after the opposing side opens 1 No Trump. It shows a certain two-suited hand with varying strength which is generally concentrated in the two suits.

Bergen Over Doubles of 1 No Trump
Mr. Marty Bergen developed a method of dealing with an opponent's overcall of a double after a 1 No Trump opening. This method, when applied, allows the partnership to reach the correct contract even after the opponents have decided to enter the auction. This method also allows the partnership to finalize the contract even after a penalty double.

Bergen Over Weak No Trump
Mr. Marty Bergen
, an experienced and expert bridge player and bridge author, devised this method to interfere with and enter the bidding auction after opponents opened a Weak No Trump, consisting of a range between 10 to 13 high card points, otherwise known as a mini-Notrump.

Variant of Bergen Over Weak No Trump
The origin of this variation is unknown. The reasoning behind the development of such a variant is the fact that the original version was unable to show the Club suit and a second suit.

Blooman Defense Method
This concept was devised and developed by Mr. Robert (Bob) Hoffman of Boynton Beach, Florida, United States, and by Mr. Irv Bloom of West Palm Beach Florida, United States. This description of the concept was originally published in the Bridge Bulletin of the American Contract Bridge League of March 2006, page 28.

Brozel Defense Method
The Brozel conventional defense method was developed by Mr. Bernard Zeller, and can be applied either in the direct or balancing position. The particular defense method can show either a one-suited holding, a two-suited holding, or a three-suited holding. The modified version by Mr. Lionel Wright is also included.

Brozel Rescue Bids
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown.
This concept is a defense response method for the partner of the opener, who opens with a bid of No Trump, which has a certain range, following an immediate double by the next player in rotation. Many bridge partnership agreements include the agreement that the defense method is only applicable when the No Trump range is 11 to 14 high card points. The frequency of being doubled when using this No Trump range is higher than when the No Trump range requires more high card points.

Buchanan - Clubs-Diamonds-Hearts Buchanan - CDH Buchanan
This is a defense method against a No Trump opening by an opponent. This conventional method was devised by Mr. David F. Buchanan, and was published in Bridge Magazine in January, 1980. Any additional information would be greatly appreciated.

Cansino Defense Method
The origin of this defense convention is attributed to Mr. Jonathan Cansino of England, during the 1960s. This is a defense method employed after the opponents have opened a 1 No Trump, especially against a weak No Trump opening with 12 to 14 high card points or even a No Trump range of 10-12 high card points. This core concept is to discover, as soon as possible, a 7-card fit at least in one of the four suits, and preferably an 8-card fit.

Modified Cansino Defense Method
This variation is also a defense method used after the opponents have opened a 1 No Trump, especially against a weak No Trump opening with 12 to 14 high card points or even a No Trump range of 10-12 high card points. This idea is to discover, as soon as possible, a 7-card fit at least in one of the four suits, and preferably an 8-card fit.

Cappelletti Defense Method
This conventional method carries the designation or the surname for Mr. Michael D. Cappelletti. There is the matter that other bridge authors and experts have devised the same conventional defense method and is also known under their surnames. The concept is also referred to as Hamilton, bearing the name of Mr. Fred Hamilton of California, United States. Added to this confusion is also the designation Pottage for the same concept, ascribed to Mr. John F. Pottage of London, England, under which designation the conventional method is also known. An extension of this defense concept to correct a certain inherent flaw is attributed to Mr. Gerald (Jerry) William Helms of Charlotte, North Carolina, United States, but does not carry any such designation.

Modified Cappelletti Defense Method
This concept is variation to the Cappelletti defense method, also known as Hamilton and Pottage, and is a defense method to an opening of No Trump by an opponent. The origin of this variation is unknown, but the reader should refer to the published article for a modified version of the original Cappelletti conventional defense method, which appeared in the Bridge Bulletin, December 1996.

Revised Cappelletti Defense Method
This designation is the term used by Mr. John Blubaugh in his article for the Bridge Bulletin, December 1996.

Comfy Canape
The origin of this competitive defense method is unknown. The concept is employed when the opposing side opens the auction with a bid of 1 No Trump. The designation for this defense method is sometimes also written as CoCa, and is so named owing to the canapé structure of the double / 2 Clubs bids with a rebid in another suit promising a longer suit.

Common Sense Defense
This article, written by Marinesa Letizia, in the Bridge Bulletin published November 1997, presents a common sense and logical defense alternative to those situations, where the 1 No Trump opening has been overcalled and there is interference. The logical approach outlined assists the bridge player to deal with most of the conventions devised to disturb the communication of two players.

Crash Over One No Trump - Crash over 1 NT
The Crash convention was devised by Mr. Christopher (Kit) Woolsey and Mr. Steve Robinson. The concept was first published in the The Bridge World
magazine in March 1976. The concept was originally devised as a means to enter the auction with weak two-suited holdings after an artificial 1 Club opening by the opponents. However, it was soon discovered that a slightly altered version could easily be employed against a No Trump opening by the opponents. This conventional defense method is generally used against a No Trump range of 15-17 high card points. As with the original conventional method the designation of Crash is a formation of color, rank, shape. The overcalls are intended to communicate at least one of these features.

Crash Defense Method Variant Over 1 No Trump
This modified version of the Crash conventional method employed following a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Scaramuzzi. The developer indeed presents two modified versions of the original concept.

Extended Crash Defense Method
The origin of this variation is unknown. This variation of the Crash conventional method is also designated as Original CRO, for Color, Rank, and Odd. It is similar to the original Crash conventional defense method, but it includes the bid of 2 No Trump to show a specific Minor and a specific Major suit.

Note: Other variations of the basic concept are, perhaps colloquially, Kosher and Shaker. Any additional information about the origin or make-up of these variations would be greatly appreciated.

Crowhurst Against No Trump Opening Bids
This is a concept employed as a defense mechanism against an opening bid of 1 No Trump by an opponent. This concept is attributed to Mr. Eric Crowhurst. This particular defense mechanism has also been referred to as Revised Pottage and Multi-Landy.

Donaldson Over No Trump Defense Method
This conventional defense method was devised and developed by Mr. R. James Donaldson of Vancouver, Canada. The employment of the double is penalty-oriented, and this conventional defense method can show either a one-suited holding, or a two-suited holding, or a three-suited holding.

D.O.N.T. or DONT or Disturb Opponents No Trump
This is a convention method used in bridge bidding and which was devised by Mr. Marty Bergen and published by Mr. Larry Cohen. This convention is sometimes referred to as Bergen Over No Trump, but has been accepted into the language of the bridge community as simply D.O.N.T., an acronym for Disturbing Opponent's No Trump.

Modified DONT
The origin of this variation is unknown. The original concept was devised by Mr. Marty Bergen and published by Mr. Larry Cohen. The original convention is sometimes referred to as Bergen Over No Trump, but has been accepted into the language of the bridge community as simply D.O.N.T. As with all defense methods, this concept has also been altered, varied, modified, and revised to meet the needs of individual partnerships.

Revised DONT
The origin of this variation is unknown. The original concept was devised by Mr. Marty Bergen and published by Mr. Larry Cohen. The original convention is sometimes referred to as Bergen Over No Trump, but has been accepted into the language of the bridge community as simply D.O.N.T. As with all defense methods, this concept has also been altered, varied, modified, and revised to meet the needs of individual partnerships.

Featherston Defense Method
This conventional defense method was devised and developed by Mr. Norm Featherston of Redmond, Washington, born 1934, and who teaches the game of bridge and who has been the Bridge Administrator Recorder for District 19 beginning in the year 1992. It is a defense method against a No Trump opening of any range.

Feel Oriented Notrump Destroyer
The origin of this concept is unknown and any additional information would be greatly appreciated. The colloquial designation is FOND.

French Defence
Although not an ethical defense method, the formerly permitted French Defense conventional method is included. In the United States and within the jurisdiction of the American Contract Bridge League it is referred to colloquially as Weasel Over No Trumps. Since the concept is easily understood a short description follows:

During the evolution of the game of bridge it was possible, owing to the lack of Laws and/or basic regulations, for unethical players to devise certain mannerisms, especially following an opening No Trump bid by the opposing partner. If the next player in rotation inquired about the range of the No Trump and then pass with about 10 to 14 points and pass, without asking, is holding weaker values. Asking about the range and then doubling the No Trump promised partner held values for a minimum double, which was then considered 15 to 17 points. However, if the next player in rotation doubled without inquiring as to the range of the No Trump, then this action would show more values of 17 points plus.

As the reader can readily understand this action is presented considered as unauthorized information and it is classified as cheating. This action has become eradicated by new Laws and the introduction of announcements, which did not permit the next player in rotation to inquire at all about the range of the No Trump bid.

The designation of French Defense most likely stems from the fact that the French and English bridge players competed with/against one another at bridge tournaments, at which time several loopholes in the Laws of Duplicate Bridge were not closed so that several unethical actions were not considered illegal, only unethical, for which there was no penalty.

Gates Adjunct
The Gates Adjunct is a supplemental defense method and is employed by partnership agreement together with any defense method opposite an opponent's opening of 1 No Trump, generally with a 14 to 18 point range, showing a one-suited or two-suited holding. The intervenor must also be a passed hand. The initiation of the Gates Adjunct is triggered by a call of double.

Gawrys Defense to 1 No Trump
The origin of this conventional method is credited to the international bridge player Mr. Piotr Gawrys of Poland. This defense mechanism is also known by the designation Meckwell. It is generally a defense mechanism against strong(er) No Trump openings or with a range higher than 13 points, but can also be employed by weaker No Trump openings per partnership agreement.

Hamilton Convention
This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. Fred Hamilton of California, United States. After the opponents open No Trump, the Hamilton convention is a defensive bid either in the direct seat or in the balancing seat. The conventional method resembles the Cappelletti defense method and the Bergen Over Weak No Trump defense method in several ways, but has added different meanings to the individual bids.

Hello Convention
This conventional defense method was devised and developed by Mr. Jerry Helms of North Carolina, United States, and his bridge partner and co-contributor Mr. Bill Lohman. The designation of the defense method is derived from the surnames of Mr. Jerry Helms and his bridge partner and co-contributor Mr. Bill Lohman. This defense method was developed as an improvement of the Cappelletti conventional defense method, of which Mr. Jerry Helms was a co-developer.

Hitchhiker Convention Against Weak 1 No Trump Opening
After a weak 1NT opening, or rebid showing the same kind of hand, the opposite holds as after a normal 1 No Trump. The goal is to get the No Trump hand in dummy. This system achieves that in many situations This information has been presented on the Internet by Mr. Gerben Dirksen of Tübingen, Germany. The blog of Mr. Gerben Dirksen can be found on the web. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: Mr. Gerben Dirksen includes the information that this method was published in The Bridge World under the title Condensed Transfers in the December 2007 issue, page 74.

Note: The origin of the designation employed by Mr. Gerben Dirksen is also unknown. The German word for a hitchhiker is der Anhalter, for which the Bridge Guys can establish no relation to the conventional method described.

Jump Ball Defense Method
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept behind this conventional method is to employ it after an opponent has opened the auction with 1 No Trump. The range of the No Trump bid should be determined and/or announced before implementing Jump Ball since the values have to be adjusted accordingly by the intervening bidder. The holding of the intervenor should be of a distributional pattern in order to justify an overcall.

Kastro Convention
This concept was devised by Mr. Daniel (Danny) Kleinman in the early 1960s. We thank Mr. Danny Kleinman for his contribution and also for his email explanation as for the necessity of modifying the Astro conventional method. His contribution is presented verbatim below for the benefit of the reader.

Kerlan Convention or Querlan Convention
Contributed by Mr. Andrei Varlan, to whom we owe a debt of gratitude. *MS March 2003*. This is a defense mechanism against a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent, which was proposed and expounded by bridge experts and bridge teachers Mr. Gilles Quéran from Angers, France, and Mr. Andrei Varlan, who lives in Gréoux-Les-Bains, south of France, but originally from Romania
.

Landy Convention or Landy Against No Trump
A conventional overcall of 2 Clubs after an opponent has opened a No Trump of different ranges in either the immediate seat or after two consecutive passes. The overcaller promises, per the original version as developed by Mr. Alvin Landy, a distributional pattern of at least 5-5 in both Major suits.

Landy Conventional Method Summary with Variations
The attempt has been made to present a summary of the general guidelines, the numerous variations and modifications to the Landy conventional defense method as an overview of the concept.

Landy Variant of the Bridge Club de Paris or Landy Variant BCP
This variant was devised by the expert bridge players of this particular bridge club in the 1970s as a variation of the original concept. Two additional bids were added as overcalls.

Landy Variant by Edwin Kantar
This variant, devised by Mr. Edwin Kantar, employs an additional bid of 2 Diamonds and includes the double for penalty.

Landy Variant by Michel Lebel
This variant, devised by Mr. Michel Lebel of France, employs an additional overcall of a double to show a two-suited holding, neither of which are specified.

Multi Landy Variation Against No Trump Opening
Multi-Landy is, in essence, a combination of conventional methods such as the Landy conventional method following an opening of No Trump by an opponent, the Muiderberg convention, and the Multi 2 which can basically be made on multiple hand patterns.

Revised Landy Variant
This is a variant of the original concept as devised by Mr. Alvin Landy. With the addition of a second, unemployed bid in the original version, the overcaller is able to show either both Major suits or both Minor suits. Included is also a variation of this variant, which reverses the meanings of both Minor suit bids.

Lionel Convention
In May of the year 1993, Mr. Lionel Wright wrote Lionel In Action in the International Popular Bridge Monthly magazine. The idea behind the concept of Mr. Lionel Wright is that one should basically be competing primarily for the partscore against 1 No Trump, i.e. a shift of emphasis from active aggressiveness to frequent competition.

Maestro Doubles
This conventional method is used after an opponent opens the auction with 1 No Trump. The range of the No Trump does not affect the effectiveness of this conventional method. However, it should be kept in mind that this particular conventional method is mostly employed by those partnerships employing No Trump defenses along the line of and similar to Hamilton, Cappelletti, and/or especially Astro in any form.

Major Oriented Notrump Killer
The origin of this concept is unknown and any additional information would be greatly appreciated. This concept is also known colloquially as MONK. As the designation strongly suggests the concept is based mainly on the fact that an overcall can be more frequently made on holdings containing both Major suits. Note: explanations of this write-up can be found online. This description is only available in a .pdf file format.

Meckwell Defense Method
As developed by Mr. Jeffrey John Meckwell and Mr. Eric Victor Rodwell both defense methods against strong and weak No Trump openings by opponents provide more opportunities to compete against either a strong or a weak No Trump opening bid by the opponents.

Meyerson Defense Against No Trump Openings
The origin of this conventional method is credited to Mr. Adam Meyerson of Los Angeles, California, United States. The concept was devised as a solution for the requirements of the ACBL in regards to the General Convention Chart, which disallowed the Woolsey conventional method, developed by Mr. Kit Woolsey, and the Robinson conventional method, developed by Mr. Steve Robinson.

Mohan Defense Against Weak No Trump Opening
Devised by and named after Mr. John A. Mohan, who is the only player to win two World Championship titles in the year 2000. He was also selected as the ACBL Player of the Year 1999. The original concept behind this defense method is the fact that it is employed by partnership agreement against Weak No Trump openings by the opponents.

Monsour Responses
The following is a presentation of a set of outlines for No Trump responses authored by Mr. Christopher Monsour and presented in an online bridge forum discussing No Trump response methods. These overcalls to an opening bid of No Trump by the opposing side have some similarities with an alternative version of D.O.N.T. as authored by Mr. Marty Bergen and also Meckwell as authored by Mr. Jeffrey (Jeff) John Meckstroth and Mr. Eric Victor Rodwell, although the discussion is indeed tangentially about the defense overcall method Blooman authored by Mr. Irv Bloom.

Mosher Defense Method Against No Trump Openings
This competitive defense method is also known as the Mosher Convention. This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. Robert Mosher of San Francisco, California, United States, and bears his name. This defense method is employed after an opponent has opened the auction with No Trump.

Power System
This conventional defense method is described in the publication of Mr. Ronald (Ron) Klinger of Australia. The first publication titled Power System: Five Bids to Winning Bridge was January 1993. Publisher is Modern Bridge Publications. ISBN-10: 0646126067 / ISBN-13: 978-0646126067. The concept is based on a hybrid variation of the Brozel conventional defense method and also the RCO. The description of the concept can be found on pages 356-359 of the first edition of 1993.

Note: The RCO conventional defense system is employed against a strong No Trump range and in fourth seat against any No Trump range. The designation is derived from the features, namely R (rank), C (color), O (odd suits). For additional information the visitor should consult the publication.

Randy Against No Trump Opening
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. Source is: Trinity College. There is a Trinity College Bridge Club and this particular conventional defense method against an opening No Trump by the opponents is part of the curriculum. The designation is presumed to be named for one of the college students and/or alumnus of the Trinity College, and developed by him. This conventional defense method is based on the Landy conventional defense method developed by Mr. Alvin Landy.

Short Version: Another, shorter version of Randy Against No Trump is presented by Mr. David Stevenson. This shorter version is very similar to the Randy conventional defense method employed by Trinity College, but it is not known whether or not the origin is identical. The absence of the 2 No Trump response by the intervenor to show both Minor suits is remarkable. Source is: David Stevenson.

Ripstra Convention
The Ripstra convention was devised by Mr. Joseph (Rip) G. Ripstra of Canada, born in the year 1900 and died in the year 1982, and who was President of ACBL in the year 1957. This conventional defense method shows actually a three-suited holding. It is an overcall after a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent, and can be used either in the immediate position or in the pass-out seat after two consecutive passes.
The range of the No Trump opening can either be a range for a strong No Trump opening or a weak No Trump opening.

Roche Defense Against No Trump Openings
The origin of this modification of the convention is unknown, although the concept may be attributed to Mr. Michael J. Roche of Ontario, Canada. The features behind the concept of this competitive defense method are employed after a No Trump opening by an opponent. Whether or not the concept can / should be employed only in the immediate seat or also as a balancing action is dependent on the partnership agreement.

Roth Over No Trump
This conventional defense method was devised and developed by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth. This particular conventional defense method, employed after an opening of No Trump by an opponent, allows the intervenor to show weak, but distribution holdings with a 5-5 distributional pattern. The defense method also includes the possibility of showing a one-suited holding in either Major suit, but not a Minor two-suited holding.

Sahara Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The purpose of this approach is as a means of competing in the auction following a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent. The intervenor is able to communicate pattern descriptions to partner regarding a one-suited holding, two-suited holdings, and three-suited holdings.

SANTA Defense Over a 1 No Trump Opening
Devised by Mr. Robert Champion as a simplification of the conventional defense method known as Hello, developed by Mr. Jerry Helms, against a 1 No Trump opening bid by an opponent. The designation is defined by the developer as Same As a NT Auction. The main feature is that the immediate player can transfer the play of the hand to partner so that the No Trump bidder remains on lead.

Scorrchio Convention
During the many years of Mr. Eric O. Kokish, as a bridge instructor and bridge teacher, he has also theorized on many methods to be employed at the bridge table. In this regard he has made many notes on possible approaches for competing in the auctions, in which the opposing side has the advantage of first opening the auction. One of these notes found great interest in Sydney, Australia, and became known as Scorrchio, which is a defense method against a No Trump opening by the opposing side. The concept is reported to have been a common agreement among several Australian bridge players and has found its way into the list of defense methods to No Trump openings.

SCUM Against No Trump Openings
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The original concept appeared gradually some time in the 1970s, but the origin is also unknown as is the precise bidding outline for the original version. This defense method considers the Shape, Color, and the Major suit. The letter u seems to have been added in order to make a pronounceable designation and has no meaning.

Sharples Against No Trump: Original Version
This version of the defense method developed by Mr. James Watson Sharples, born in November of the year 1908 and died October 3, 1985, and also by his younger twin brother Mr. Robert Boake Sharples, born in the year 1908 and died in the year 1999, both of Caterham, England, is originally a method of responding to a No Trump opening by the partner. This version carries the designation as the original version in the sense that the original version of the developers has not been recorded and this version has the distinction of being the oldest.

Sharples Against No Trump Opening: Version One
This version of the Sharples conventional defense method can be employed either in the immediate seat or in the balancing seat. The range of the No Trump opening is generally on the stronger side, but the concept can / may be adapted to confront all ranges of No Trump. The main difference is that this version assigns significance to idle bids above 2 Diamonds.

Modified Sharples Against a No Trump Opening: Version Two
This version of the defense method can be employed either in the immediate seat or in the balancing seat. The range of the No Trump opening is generally on the stronger side, but the concept can / may be adapted to confront all ranges of No Trump. This variation is dissimilar to the original concept by including a multi-purpose 2 Diamonds bid.

Spash Convention
The origin of the Splash convention is unknown, but is rumored to have roots in bidding systems employed in Australia. The designation is an acronym of the phrase Suit Plus A Suit Higher.

Suction Convention
This conventional defense method is ascribed and credited to Mr. Harold Feldheim of Hamden, Connecticut, United States. The suction conventional defense method is employed after the opponents open the auction with No Trump
.

Inverted Psycho Suction
The concept behind the conventional method designated inverted psycho suction is the development of Mr. Thomas Andrews. Following the original concept of psycho suction it was evident from the original version that the player would be able to minimize the number of times of being forced to pass instead of competing.

Psycho Suction
The concept behind the conventional method designated inverted psycho suction is the development of Mr. Thomas Andrews. Following the original concept of the original suction conventional method it was evident from the original version that the responder and the No Trump bidder could easily formulate a defense method to penalize the competition with a penalty double.

TWERB Suction
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. This defense method is employed after an opponent has opened the auction with No Trump. This defense method is a variation of the Suction convention as is mainly used in TWERB or Two-Way Exclusion Relay Bidding. It has therefore been give the designation Twerb Suction.

Toss Convention
This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. William (Willie) Jago of Melbourne, Australia. A complete outline can be found in his publication MOST, which describes in detail his Standard System MOST. His publication was first published in the year 1994/1995 and is an acronym of the letters Most Oriented Standard, ISBN: 0646221612, published privately in Docaster, Victoria by the author.

Transfer Overcalls of 1 No Trump - Transfer Overcalls of 1NT
This competitive conventional method or approach, Transfer Overcalls of 1 NT, was first introduced as part of the Blue Team Club. The transfer is to a single-suited holding containing a suit comprised of at least 6 plus cards. Whether or not the holding may contain a void was not addressed. The decision to make such a transfer bid is based upon the power of the distribution of the holding itself, and less upon the values of the holding.

VROOM Defense to 1 No Trump
This particular defense method is only for the more advanced player and more experienced partnership owing to its complexity. The summary is presented on this site with no examples or illustrations. The summary is compiled by Mr. Mohamed Abdel Bari and has been contributed by Mr. Scott Bennett Graham. The definition of the designation remains unknown.

Wallis Convention
This defense method against a No Trump opening by the opponents was devised by Mr. Peter James Wallis of Brisbane, Australia. The guidelines are outlined below. The overcalls generally promise either a two-suited holding or the overcall is natural.

Wallis Modified or Modified Wallis Against No Trump
The features behind the concept of this variation are employed after a No Trump opening by an opponent. Whether or not the concept can / should be employed in the immediate seat or as a balancing action is dependent on the partnership agreement.

WONT Convention
The designation is a combination of the first letters of Weak Opponents No Trump. The designation is also sometimes referred to as Wreck Opponents No Trump. The concept was developed by Mr. Rakesh Kuman of Sydney, Australia. This version of the write-up is by Mr. Glen Ashton and is presented in a .pdf file format and archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

Woolsey Defense To 1 No Trump Openings
The magazine Bridge Today, founded by Matthew and Pamela Granovetter, is a bi-monthly publication, and its regular columnists include a variety of expert players, teachers, and writers from around the world. One of the contributors to the magazine is Mr. Christopher R. Woolsey, also known as Kit. The following is part of his articles describing the Woolsey Defense to 1 No Trump openings.

Zebulon Convention - Preferences System
A No Trump Overcall System for Current ACBL Restrictions published by Mr. John Vega and Mr. Marty Lavine. The concept is the variation on the theme of the Suction convention to meet the requirements of bridge sponsoring organizations, especially ACBL, announced in 1998, with the amended section of the General Convention Chart which relates to No Trump defenses by requiring that direct overcalls other than double and 2 Clubs, must have at least one known suit. The Zebulon convention was later designated as Preferences. The articles by both authors is presented in .pdf file format and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Note: An article authored Mr. John Vega and Mr. Marty C. Lavine appeared in the September 2000 issue of The Bridge Bulletin, page 65-66, as published by the ACBL under the title of Preferential Treatment. This article has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

 

 

If you wish to include this feature, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.

 


     
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