The Bridge Battle of the Century as it was called when it took place between December 1931 and January 1932, was a genuine milestone in the history of the development and promotion of bridge as it is known today. Combining as it did every feature designed to capture and hold the interest of the then bridge-mad multitudes, and starring the greatest celebrities then prominent in bridge, it was predestined to be an exciting and long-remembered event. These were the years when bridge was making its impact felt keenly in the United States for the first lime.
During the previous decade, many new styles of bidding and play had come to the forefront, and most prominent among these was the CULBERTSON SYSTEM. Conceived and popularized by a man who was a born molder of opinions and customs, and who was a superbly able practical psychologist as well, the Culbertson System took the nation by storm, and was indeed original in concept and, as practiced by its leading exponents, a successful and highly practical method of bidding in bridge. Naturally its success caused many rivalries and feuds among those players who were at the very top rungs of the bridge ability ladder. This resulted in a strange war, a Systemic War in which 12 leading authorities. including Sidney Lenz, Milton Work, Wilbur C. Whitehead and Edward V Shepad, got together and organized a corporation, Bridge Headquarters, all forces joined to combat Culbertson’s domination of Contract Bridge.
The principal leader of the various groups in opposition to the Culbertson methods was Lenz, a veteran of Auction Bridge. In his camp were other great luminaries of the game who also felt that their methods were superior to the Culbertson System. The name by which the Lenz forces’ system was called was the Official System. A book on this system, which acknowledged its debt to Culbertson in that much of it was derived from his concepts, was later to be written by Work. Thc actual match was the result of a challenge made earlier in 1931 by Culbertson to the Lenz faction. There were many complications to be ironed out before agreement as to conditions could actually be achieved, but essentially the match was finally played on a pair-against-pair basis, with Culbertson wagering $5,000 against Lenz’s $1,000 on the outcome, with the money going to charity no matter who won. Culbertson promoted the match as the struggle of a young loving married couple against the forces of adversity with 12 jealous authorities, the establishment, combined against them. Of course it was also billed as a grudge fight and a battle of systems. As a result the match was a topic of conversation at every bridge table and at many dinner tables long before it began. In all, 150 rubbers were played, and during 88 of them Culbertson played with his wife, Josephine. His partners for the balance of the encounter were Theodore A. Lightner, Waldemar Von Zedtwitz, Howard Schenken, and Michael Gottlieb.
Lenz played the first 103 rubbers with Oswald Jacoby, who then resigned because of a difference of opinion on the play of a defensive situation. Lenz’s partner for the remainder of the session was Commander Winfield Liggett Jr. Alfred Gruenther, then a lieutenant instructor at West Point, was chief referee of the match.
The Culbertson team won by 8,980 points. Careful and accurate records of cards held for each deal were kept, and at the conclusion it was determined that each side had held fairly much the same number of high cards as the other. The first half of the match was held at New York’s Chatham Hotel, and the second part at the newly opened Waldorf-Astoria. The conditions of play and of protocol in general were governed by an agreement to which both Culbertson and Lenz were signatory, and the bridge laws under which the match was conducted were those published by the Whist Club of New York.
Number of two-game rubbers
Size of average rubber won
Largest rubber won
Small Slams bid and made
Small Slams defeated
(not including sacrifices)
Grand Slams defeated
Opening Suit bids of one
Opening 1 No Trump bids
Opening forcing bids
Small Slams made but not bid
(many owing to lucky breaks)
Games made but not bid
(many owing to lucky breaks)
Number of exact game Contract
voluntarily bid and defeated
Number of Penalties of 600 plus
Points lost in Penalties of 600 plus
Value of average rubber:
Hands passed out:
Coverage by the press of the nation was stupendous. Stories about the match were on the front pages of newspapers all over America. Regular correspondents were dispatched to the scenes of play, and some of the great newspaper personalities of the time wrote articles for their papers and for syndicates. The Associated Press laid heavy cables right into the Culbertson apartment at the Chatham Hotel, assigned reporters to the match and gave play-by-play coverage while Western Union and Postal Telegraph established branches in a spare room.
A continuous line of the rich and famous moved into the drawing room and out of it, viewing the action through cracks in a large leather screen, and trying to catch a glimpse of the players’ faces or the flash of a card being played. Culbertson called it the greatest peep show in history. A 438-page book, Famous Hands of The Culbertson-Lenz Match, was published in three sections with bidding and play analyzed by Culbertson and his partners, Jacoby, and Lt. Gruenther. Complete statistics were collated, and records of every phase of the match carefully kept. However, the single most significant feature of the entire proceedings was the enormous impetus it gave bridge when the game’s popularity was already great.
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Mathematical Probabilities Percentage The numerous combinations of 52 cards and their probabilites and/or percentages of distribution and/or pattern and/or occurence have been studied by many mathematicians, arithmeticians, probability theorists, and mathematical statisticians. The source of the tables below are from The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge, published by the American Contract Bridge League in the year […]View More
There are many ways to indicate, show, promise and inform a partner by the lead of a certain card or via a discard of a specific card the expectation of the ensuing play. These defense signals have a definite meaning and belong in every partnership agreement. These different leads and/or discards have been posted separately […]View More
The development of the Gerber convention is accredited to Mr. John Gerber, born in the year 1906 in Houston, Texas, United States, and died January 28, 1981, who devised the method in 1938. This convention is sometimes referred to as the Four Clubs Blackwood. The concept and fundamental idea was devised independently by Dr. William […]View More