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June 17, 2024

Beeper Brings iMessage to Android with Controversial Reverse Engineering

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Dec 4, 2023

Beeper, a startup that aggregates business chat apps into one platform, has released a new "Mini" version of its app that enables Android users to seamlessly access iMessage. The company claims to have reverse-engineered the iMessage protocol to enable cross-platform messaging between iPhones and Android devices.

Background

iMessage is Apple’s popular messaging platform that allows iPhone, iPad, and Mac users to message each other. It is deeply integrated into iOS and MacOS and utilizes end-to-end encryption for security. iMessage is notable for its blue message bubbles and delivery receipts.

However, iMessage has long been exclusive to Apple devices, preventing Android users from seamlessly participating in iMessage group chats. This has resulted in the phenomenon of "green bubble shame," where Android users’ green bubbles allegedly carry a social stigma.

Beeper originally launched in 2021 as a universal chat app aggregating various business chat apps. The company uses a combination of official APIs and reverse engineering to enable cross-platform access to apps like WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Slack, and others.

Beeper Announces Controversial iMessage Support

On December 5th, 2023, Beeper publicly announced the launch of Beeper Mini, a stripped-down version of its app focused solely on granting Android devices access to iMessage. Beeper Mini is available as an invite-only early beta on the Google Play Store.

Beeper claims to have reverse-engineered much of the iMessage protocol to enable this functionality. In a statement to The Verge, founder and CEO Adam Lashinsky commented:

“Let me be clear: We have not ‘cracked iMessage encryption’. We have reverse engineered the client and recreated the server. iMessage security remains fully intact…Everything important under the hood in iMessage remains unchanged."

However, cybersecurity experts have raised ethical concerns regarding the practice of reverse engineering closed protocols like iMessage without the platform owner’s consent or cooperation.

Matthew Green, a cryptography professor at Johns Hopkins University, stated to Ars Technica:

“When people start reverse engineering protocols — especially security protocols — without the consent of the parties who design these protocols, then this creates problems… Apple doesn’t allow third parties to access iMessage for a reason.“

Nonetheless, initial user response to Beeper Mini has been overwhelmingly positive among Android users seeking iMessage access. The app’s early beta already has a lengthy waitlist.

How Beeper Mini Enables iMessage on Android

According to Beeper’s documentation, Beeper Mini functions by intercepting iMessages before they reach Apple’s servers. The app pretends to be an iOS device to Apple services.

Specifically, Beeper Mini utilizes virtual SIM card emulation to authenticate as an iPhone to Apple services. It then intercepts messages locally and translates them into an Android-compatible format before routing them to Beeper’s own servers.

This allows Beeper Mini to avoid directly interfacing with Apple’s servers. However, it likely requires spoofing hardware identifiers like IMEI and ICCID numbers to maintain persistent iMessage functionality.

Early Hands-On Impressions

Early hands-on impressions of the Beeper Mini beta highlight both impressive technical execution alongside some limitations.

Reviewers praise Beeper’s ability to seamlessly mimic native iOS iMessage functionality on Android. This includes:

  • Full end-to-end encryption
  • Typing indicators
  • Read receipts
  • Reactions
  • Sticker support
  • Media attachments
  • Group messaging

However, there are some persistent issues:

  • iOS users see green bubbles from Android users
  • Persistent iMessage connection relies on virtual SIM card emulation
  • Higher battery drain than native messaging apps
  • Only available via invite-only beta for now

Overall though, TechCrunch summarizes that "Beeper Mini pulls off a pretty magical trick even with the limits." For Android users, native-esque iMessage access remains the holy grail.

The History Behind iMessage Exclusivity

iMessage launched in 2011 as a successor to Apple’s older SMS-based messaging system. It utilized Apple’s push notification service to enable real-time messaging between Apple devices.

Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs reportedly intended for iMessage to become the industry standard for mobile messaging. However, Apple ultimately made iMessage exclusive to its own platforms rather than open it up to partners like Android.

There are a few commonly cited reasons behind this decision:

  • Promote iPhone/iOS stickiness and retention
  • Maintain end-to-end encryption control
  • Leverage iMessage as a competitive advantage
  • Increase switching costs for iPhone users

Additionally, cross-platform messaging presents challenges like maintaining API compatibility, implementing end-to-end encryption, and replicating platform-exclusive features like Memoji.

Nonetheless, Steve Job’s old vision of iMessage as the default messaging standard clearly did not come to fruition. Instead, third-party apps like WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, and WeChat now dominate global messaging traffic.

What This Means for the Future

The launch of Beeper Mini has larger implications regarding the ethics of reverse engineering proprietary platforms, the exclusivity of ecosystem lock-in, and user attitudes towards closed protocols.

Reverse Engineering Controversy

Beeper Mini brings the controversy regarding reverse engineering proprietary apps and protocols back into the spotlight. As mentioned, experts like Professor Matthew Green have ethical concerns about reverse engineering security systems without consent. Others argue that Beeper’s actions represent responsible disclosure aimed at benefitting consumers.

There are also concerns that Apple may retaliate against Beeper through legal action or technical countermeasures intended to block similar reverse engineering attempts in the future. For example, Apple utilizes specialized hardware integrated with proprietary code to prevent certain classes of iOS virtualization. Similar defenses around iMessage authentication may follow.

Ultimately, Beeper Mini highlights an ideological clash between closed, proprietary platforms and advocates of open standards. The ethical lines remain blurry, but user response continues trending firmly against ecosystem lock-in.

Platform Exclusivity Backlash

On a related note, Beeper Mini represents the latest consumer backlash against platform exclusivity and closed messaging protocols like iMessage. Android users are clearly fed up with excluding "green bubble" contacts from group chats.

Tech analyst Ben Thompson argues this will continue pressuring Apple towards adopting RCS, the proposed universal successor to SMS:

“In reverse engineering iMessage, Beeper is calling Apple’s bluff with regards to RCS…Apple can either adopt RCS, or see its users increasingly exposed to alternatives that, while not perfect, make iPhone messaging deficits felt by Android users ever more acute.”

In other words, if third-party apps can replicate iMessage, Apple loses their competitive differentiation around messaging exclusivity. This reduces incentives around ongoing iMessage lock-in.

Indeed, Apple has reportedly considered bringing iMessage to Android in the past. Google also previously reached out to Apple about adopting RCS for cross-platform messaging.

Ultimately, Beeper Mini demonstrates that despite Apple’s restrictions, sufficient consumer demand can compel the market to break down ecosystem barriers. Messaging interoperability increasingly feels inevitable, whether through RCS or reverse-engineered alternatives.

Outlook on Beeper Mini’s Future

Looking forward, Beeper Mini’s public reception, growth trajectory, and Apple’s response all remain key factors dictating its future accessibility and viability.

For now, Beeper Mini remains in a limited early beta for Android users. iOS users continue seeing Android contacts as green bubbles rather than native iMessage users.

Beeper aims to eventually support true messaging interoperability between platforms. But getting Apple users on board poses business challenges regarding Beeper’s pricing model and user experience familiarity on iOS.

Most crucially, Apple may yet respond with legal action or technical countermeasures against Beeper’s reverse engineering efforts. An outright blockade could entirely cut off Beeper Mini’s iMessage access.

Nonetheless, Beeper Mini represents a watershed moment in the messaging interoperability conversation. For Android users, a taste of iMessage already feels revolutionary enough to spur further innovation. The age of mobile platform exclusivity appears to be nearing its end.

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AiBot scans breaking news and distills multiple news articles into a concise, easy-to-understand summary which reads just like a news story, saving users time while keeping them well-informed.

To err is human, but AI does it too. Whilst factual data is used in the production of these articles, the content is written entirely by AI. Double check any facts you intend to rely on with another source.

By AiBot

AiBot scans breaking news and distills multiple news articles into a concise, easy-to-understand summary which reads just like a news story, saving users time while keeping them well-informed.

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