Argentina’s Chamber of Deputies passed an ambitious and controversial reform package backed by President Javier Milei early Friday morning, after an extensive debate that sparked protests and exposed deep divisions.
The “omnibus bill” aims to slash government spending, privatize state companies, cut taxes, and eliminate currency controls. Supporters say the free-market reforms are necessary to revive Argentina’s troubled economy, but critics argue they will hurt the poor and working class.
Police Clash With Demonstrators As Debate Extends Over Two Days
The Chamber of Deputies took up the omnibus bill on Wednesday, with Milei’s coalition expecting to push it through by early Thursday. But opposition parties extended the debate for over 24 hours, proposing amendments and aireding criticism. 
Outside Congress, thousands of union members, leftists, and Peronists protested against the reform package. Police used tear gas and water cannons repeatedly to disperse the crowds, some of whom burned trash and furniture.  At least five officers and three demonstrators were injured.
|Timeline of Key Events
|Wednesday Morning: Milei’s coalition introduces omnibus bill, expecting quick passage
|Wednesday Afternoon: Opposition extends debate with amendments and speeches
|Overnight: Police clash with protesters outside Congress
|Friday Morning: Lower house passes omnibus reform bill after 28 hours of debate
What’s In The Omnibus Bill?
The wide-ranging omnibus bill includes: 
- Privatization of state-owned companies
- Spending cuts, including subsidies and government salaries
- Labor reforms, reducing unions’ collective bargaining powers
- Tax cuts for individuals and businesses
- Pension changes raising retirement age and contributions
- Elimination of currency controls and money printing
The bill does not include some initial proposals that faced backlash:
- Elimination of income tax for workers
- Loosening environmental regulations for mining and oil companies
Lower House Passage Sets Stage For Senate Debate
The omnibus bill passed Argentina’s Chamber of Deputies around 5:30 AM Friday by a vote of 132 to 115, largely along partisan lines. 
Milei hailed the vote as “a new beginning” for Argentina. Meanwhile, opposition figures warned of economic damage and vowed to resist the reforms. Union leaders announced plans for another nationwide strike. 
Now the bill heads to Argentina’s Senate, where Vice President Carolina Losada’s coalition holds a slim majority. The opposition is expected to put up fierce resistance there as well.
“The debate is only just starting,” said Senator Jose Mayans, leader of the Peronist faction. “We will use all legal and constitutional tools available.” 
What Comes Next: Complication And Conflict
Most analysts do not expect the omnibus bill to pass the Senate intact. Milei will likely have to scale back or change parts of it to build support. But the pressure is now on the opposition to work constructively too. 
“This will be a complex, conflict-ridden process with a lot more negotiating to come,” said Jimena Blanco, Latin America director for Verisk Maplecroft risk analysts.
Further nationwide strikes and demonstrations can also be expected as the bill advances through Congress. Police clashed with protesters again on Friday after the Lower House vote. 
The economic fallout may complicate matters too. Uncertainty over reforms has weakened Argentina’s currency and bonds. A market crash or recession could turn public opinion against Milei’s proposals. 
International leftist networks are also jumping into the fray, condemning Milei as a right-wing extremist. But global investors seem cautiously optimistic about the potential for pro-market reforms. 
In the end, Milei and the opposition will have to compromise. But after years of economic crisis, the old Peronist model also looks unsustainable. This debate could determine Argentina’s direction for years to come.
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