June 16, 2024

Scientists Uncover New Molecular Arrangement that Contradicts Textbooks

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Jan 16, 2024

Researchers studying the surface of salt water have made a surprising discovery that upends our understanding of water molecules and their behavior. The findings reveal that water molecules exhibit a unique arrangement when interacting with ions at aqueous interfaces. This newly uncovered molecular ordering contradicts what textbooks have taught for decades about water structure.

Novel Molecular Ordering Observed at Saltwater Surface

Scientists conducted simulations and imaging analysis of the boundary where water meets air on salt water solutions ( They focused on the orientations of water molecules under the influence of salt ions like sodium and chloride. It was previously thought that ions have little effect on water molecule alignment other than a slight preference to point hydrogen atoms towards the ions.

However, the researchers discovered the water molecules exhibited a novel “polar ordering” not seen before (Cosmos). The hydrogen atoms consistently pointed outwards towards air, while the oxygen atoms pointed inwards towards the solution. This alternating arrangement propagated deep into the interface.

“We found, strikingly, that instead of pointing hydrogen atoms towards ions dissolved in water as previously thought, water molecules were forming a uniform alignment at the surface, with hydrogen pointing away from the bulk liquid,” explained lead researcher Dr. Michael Krisch of the University of Waterloo.

Findings Have Major Implications for Many Fields

The newly observed molecular ordering of water has disrupted established theories used by chemists, biologists and environmental scientists (Tech Explorist). The research team notes their discovery will require revising what textbooks teach students about water.

“The newly discovered phenomenon will require rewriting something believed quite fundamental,” said Krisch.

The interfaces between water and hydrophobic substances like air have wide-ranging importance for chemical reactions in the atmosphere and in biological systems. A better grasp of water behavior at these boundaries will impact our understanding across disciplines.

“The new finding should have profound implications in chemistry and biology,” stated Krisch (Intersting Engineering). It may lead to innovations in energy storage, public health, industrial applications utilizing electrolytes, and climate modeling.

Research Methodology and Experiments

The researchers utilized molecular dynamics simulations and a technique called second harmonic generation (SHG) to analyze the boundary layer of water meeting air (

SHG involves firing lasers at interfaces and measuring the reflected light. The pattern of reflected light provides information about molecular arrangements below the surface.

“SHG is exquisitely sensitive to symmetry, and using this technique has allowed us to identify this unexpected uniform polarization deep into the interfacial region that could not be observed previously,” stated Dr. Krisch (BNN Breaking).

The research team also collaborated with scientists in South Korea to verify their computer simulation findings with physical experiments. They performed SHG measurements on salt solutions like sodium nitrate and sodium iodide. The consistent results across both computational and experimental domains strengthen the conclusions.

Origins of Discovery Started with Investigation into Protein Behavior

Dr. Krisch’s research group studies how proteins interact with water-hydrophobic interfaces, which is important for biological functions ( In the course of their protein investigations, they uncovered unusual behavior of water molecules in the presence of salt ions. This prompted them to further study the saltwater surfaces.

“While we set out to understand how ions affect proteins near surfaces, we found even mundane table salt was able to order water molecules,” explained Krisch.

Their focus on biological systems likely allowed the research team to uncover something unknown for salty water interfaces despite decades of surface chemistry research. The water molecule ordering may have analogues in protein and cell membrane interactions.

Impacts Expected Across Many Areas of Science

The newly observed behavior of water molecules at saltwater surfaces has disrupted established theories used across chemistry, physics, climate science and biology (

Experts say it will impact atmospheric chemistry, especially where sea salt particles interact with the air. The novel molecular arrangement may enhance certain chemical reactions related to ozone and other compounds.

In climate modeling, assumptions about water evaporation from the oceans may need revising in light of these findings about surface water orientation. This could reduce uncertainties in projections.

Energy storage technologies relying on electrolytes will benefit from better comprehending the role of ions in ordering water structure. For example, guidance on improving battery efficiency could emerge.

Understanding how ions influence water interfaces also promises to inform biological processes better. Many proteins leverage hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with water when carrying out their functions.

“This unexpected finding shows us just how much still remains undiscovered about water, the most fundamental of scientific subjects,” summed up Dr. Krisch (MedRxiv).

Next Steps in Research

The researchers plan additional experiments using SHG technology and molecular simulations to further analyze this novel behavior of water molecules ( They want to explore how changing factors like ion type, concentration, and contaminants impact the orientation ordering of water.

Expanding the evidence for how water arranges across a variety interfaces will also be important.

“I expect stimulating debates about the structure of water near hydrophobic interfaces such as water-air, water-lipids, and water-proteins,” stated Krisch (Interesting Engineering).

Ultimately, scientists across many disciplines will need to reevaluate theories and models based on presumptions about simplistic water behavior. Misconceptions passed on in textbooks for generations will finally get updated thanks to this breakthrough discovery.


The revelation that water molecules exhibit a distinct alternating polar arrangement at saltwater-air interfaces defies longtime scientific dogma. Textbooks asserting that water hydrogens subtly orient towards dissolved ions require revision thanks to this research.

The findings promise significant advances in comprehending atmospheric chemistry, developing innovative energy storage, and elucidating biological mechanisms. But first, acceptance of the newly uncovered water ordering will upend entrenched beliefs across chemistry and physics. Driving adoption in educational materials poses the next challenge along with additional verification studies.

Regardless, it becomes clear we understand far less about the behavior of these ubiquitous H2O molecules than previously thought. More discoveries that overturn cherished theories likely await. For now, rewriting those textbooks offers the first step on an exciting path towards revolutionizing multiple disciplines central to how nature works.




AiBot scans breaking news and distills multiple news articles into a concise, easy-to-understand summary which reads just like a news story, saving users time while keeping them well-informed.

To err is human, but AI does it too. Whilst factual data is used in the production of these articles, the content is written entirely by AI. Double check any facts you intend to rely on with another source.

By AiBot

AiBot scans breaking news and distills multiple news articles into a concise, easy-to-understand summary which reads just like a news story, saving users time while keeping them well-informed.

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