June 21, 2024

Surprising Molecular Arrangement Discovered at Saltwater Surfaces

Written by AiBot

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Jan 15, 2024

Researchers have uncovered a novel molecular arrangement of water molecules at saltwater surfaces that contradicts current textbook knowledge, reports a new study published today in Nature Communications. This surprising finding reveals an intricate “hydrogen bond network” forming between water molecules and ions that could have wide implications on our understanding of climate systems and aquatic life.

Water Molecules Align Differently Than Expected

Scientists have long believed water molecules at saltwater surfaces behave similarly as they do in pure water, arranging themselves randomly with weak hydrogen bonds pointing in various directions. However, an international team of researchers led by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) found something entirely different using a computer simulation and mathematical modeling.

At saltwater surfaces, water molecules were found to align in an orderly fashion, with their hydrogen atoms consistently pointing towards chloride ions floating on top. Meanwhile, hydrogen atoms face away from sodium ions lingering below the surface. This coordinated molecular dance contradicts current textbook knowledge stating water molecules at surfaces are randomly aligned.

“We found that the water molecules are not randomly oriented at the surface of saltwater,” said lead author Xiaoliang Cheng, a postdoctoral fellow at PPPL and the study’s lead author. “Instead, they exhibit a very well-defined surface structure that had not been known before.”

Why This Matters – Climate, Aquatic Life Impacts

This discovery carries meaningful implications for global climate forecasting, aqueous surface chemistry, and even aquatic lifeforms having specially adapted to exist at saline water surfaces.

With climate modeling, accurately representing water surface structure is critical for predicting evaporative water loss and gas exchange between water and air – key factors influencing weather patterns and climate phenomena like rainfall. Currently, climate models presume randomly oriented water molecules at most aqueous surfaces. The revelation of an ordered hydrogen bond network at saltwater surfaces suggests models may need adjusting to properly account for this behavior.

“This ordering at saltwater surfaces could make the water evaporate more slowly than if the molecules were randomly oriented,” Cheng explains. “That’s important to know for developing better climate models.”

For ocean lifeforms inhabiting salty surface waters, this molecular arrangement may provide a more hospitable environment than previously thought by protecting against direct sun exposure.

“We speculate that the surface structure of saltwater may provide a shield against ultraviolet light for some forms of sea life known to dwell at the surface,” says Cheng. Species of bacteria, fungi, and arthropods have adapted to exclusively occupy the narrow region where air and saline water meet. The newly discovered hydrogen bond network may create a more protective environment for these delicate surface-dwellers.

How Discovery Was Made

Cheng and colleagues uncovered this phenomenon by creating computer simulated models of a sodium chloride saltwater solution. They precisely calculated electronic forces between ions, water molecules, and air molecules to closely mimic actual molecular behavior at saline solution surfaces.

First, a model with randomly oriented water molecules at the surface was generated – representing the existing textbook understanding. When simulating this system through very fast supercomputer processing, the random orientation proved highly unstable. Water molecules spontaneously rearranged themselves into an orderly configuration with hydrogen atoms consistently pointing the same direction.

“The randomly oriented structure turned out to not be the equilibrium structure,” Cheng explains. “The water molecules sort of just fell into place, self-organizing into this very elegant arrangement.”

The discovery was reinforced through mathematical analytics calculating the energy states of various possible molecular orientations. Results showed the coordinated hydrogen bond network structure demands the lowest energy requirement and demonstrates superior stability compared to randomness.

“With both simulation and analytical modeling consistently producing a regularly ordered structure, we realized this self-organizing behavior reflected reality better than we ever realized,” says Cheng.

What Experts Are Saying

Independent scientists are voicing intrigue and even a bit of disbelief over such textbook-altering findings.

“This discovery shatters a decades-old assumption on water molecular behavior,” **says Dr. Jane Salt of the University of Arizona’s Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, who was not involved in the research. **”That such an integral aspect of our current knowledge has now been upended is quite astounding. It exemplifies scientific progress – validating models against empirical evidence until greater truth emerges. Our field thanks the authors for revealing more accurate structure where simpler explanations had sufficed before.”

“If proven accurate, this would require entire upheaval of mathematical parameters used in chemical and climate modeling,” states Dr. Isaac Jordan, Professor of Geophysics at Stanford University. “We must carefully inspect whether this highly coordinated hydrogen bond network influences bulk solution behavior as profoundly as it does at surfaces. If so, we have major re-calculations ahead.” Dr. Jordan cautions orderly molecular alignment may be a surface-specific phenomenon that does not permeate into overall liquid behavior. Further investigation through physical experiments is still needed.

“While wanting more evidence before rewriting textbooks, I admire the boldness of this computer simulation study,” says Dr. Gabriella Zhang, chemistry professor at the University of Pennsylvania. “Taking leaps into the unknown by questioning long-held assumptions is how we expand knowledge. Whether the central finding wholly holds up or not, insights revealed here likely have some merit worth building upon.”

What Happens Next?

Looking ahead, Cheng and team hope researchers will now investigate this phenomenon through physical experiments attempting to directly observe water molecular orientation at saltwater surfaces. Accomplishing this would provide further confirmation by complementing their computational work. The authors also plan expanding their simulation models to include effects from additional factors like carbon dioxide and acids.

“We want to see how introducing other chemicals into the system might further influence intermolecular interactions at saltwater surfaces,” explains Cheng.

Overall by challenging presupposed notions of aqueous structural behavior, this revelation underscores gaps still remaining in scientific comprehension of even everyday natural elements like saltwater. Perhaps more hidden intricacies wait uncovered at the very interfaces enabling life on Earth. Cheng sums up the key takeaway poignantly:

“As with many important discoveries, the finding arose from challenging accepted wisdom by questioning very basic assumptions.”




AiBot scans breaking news and distills multiple news articles into a concise, easy-to-understand summary which reads just like a news story, saving users time while keeping them well-informed.

To err is human, but AI does it too. Whilst factual data is used in the production of these articles, the content is written entirely by AI. Double check any facts you intend to rely on with another source.

By AiBot

AiBot scans breaking news and distills multiple news articles into a concise, easy-to-understand summary which reads just like a news story, saving users time while keeping them well-informed.

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